Literature Review: Hubungan Antara Riwayat Kelahiran Prematur dengan Tingkat Kecerdasan Intelektual (Intelligence Quotient - IQ) pada Anak Usia Sekolah Dasar

Authors

  • Rizka Amalia Utami Brawijaya University
  • Ni Luh Putu Herli Mastuti Universitas Brawijaya
  • Krisjentha Iffah Agustasari Universitas Brawijaya

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21776/ub.JOIM.2022.006.01.3

Abstract

ABSTRACT Preterm is defined as babies born alive before 37 weeks of pregnancy are completed. Several studies have reported that premature babies may have a risk of cognitive problems. Premature babies with gestational age between 32-35 weeks have lower intelligence and poor neuropsychological function at early school age. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the association between preterm birth and the level of Intellectual Intelligence or (IQ) in school-age children. This study used a literature review method. Researcher did research using three databases: ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Google Scholar with keywords: preterm, IQ (intelligence quotient), intelligence, cognitive, and school-age children. From 19.256 articles, 12 articles were reviewed that met all the criteria. Based on the results of this review study, there is a relationship between degree of prematurities and IQ level. The more immature and the lower the baby's birth weight, is more likely to reduce the level of intelligence and neurological disorders.Keywords: Prematurity, Intelligence Quotient (IQ), School-age children ABSTRAK Prematur didefinisikan sebagai bayi yang lahir hidup sebelum usia kehamilan genap 37 minggu. Beberapa penelitian melaporkan bahwa bayi prematur mempunyai risiko masalah kognitif. Bayi prematur dengan usia gestasi 32-35 minggu memiliki inteligensi lebih rendah dan fungsi neuropsikologi buruk di usia sekolah dini dibandingkan dengan bayi aterm. Oleh karena itu tujuan dari penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengetahui hubungan antara riwayat kelahiran prematur dengan tingkat kecerdasan intelektual (intelligence quotient - IQ) pada anak usia sekolah dasar. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode studi kepustakaan atau yang sering disebut sebagai literature review. Peneliti melakukan pencarian jurnal pada tiga database yaitu ScienceDirect, PubMed, Google Scholar dengan kata kunci: preterm, IQ (intelligence quotient), intelligence, cognitive, dan school-age children. Dari 19.256 jurnal didapatkan 12 jurnal yang memenuhi kriteria dan selanjutnya dilakukan review. Berdasarkan kajian terhadap seluruh literatur tersebut, didapatkan adanya hubungan derajat prematuritas dengan tingkat IQ. Semakin immature dan semakin rendah berat lahir bayi maka semakin besar kemungkinan berkurangnya tingkat kecerdasan dan gangguan neurologik. Kata Kunci: Prematuritas,  Intelligence Quotient (IQ), Anak usia sekolah dasar

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Published

2022-04-30